Category Archives: 141 RES

Spread #3

Spread #3

For the third spread, I was in charge of creating a comparison spread for survey 8. As this period of time encompassed both world war 1 and the the jazz age, which I thought would make for a very interesting contrast as you could see the direct aftermath of the war.

I halved the page into two, one for each era. On the outside of each page, I placed a figure to represent the life of women during these time periods as it was a distinction which was marked compared to the times previous. To further reinforce the idea of constrast, the figure for world war 1 was done in cool colours, while the jazz age figure was done in warm colours. I wanted to amplify the dreariness and hardship that permeated the time period, even back at home. The jazz age figure was done in warm colours to show the rebound of the economy and culture that occurred after the first world war.  Behind them I placed a background. For the background for the world war 1 side, I put the silhouette of the trenches with an explosion. To contrast against the figure I did it entirely in warm colours to represent the constant danger of life in the trenches. I felt like this was a good contrast, as it represents the hardships for the soldiers fighting on the front lines. For the jazz age page, I created a city, as they were the cultural centre of the time. The city is also done in cool colours to create a colder impression of the city to represent the flaws of the time (namely how the iconic speakeasies were almost all controlled by gangs).
I brought the image together by creating a border, and I added in two white motifs in the art deco style to each corner to add more interest.

Out of ten, I would give myself an 8 on this spread. I think that in all, the spread is alright, but the composition could have been a little more interesting. I think the contrast between warm and cool colours did work well though. I think I should have put the background lower down on the page, as makes the figure disappear into the background, which is the opposite effect I wanted to create. Additionally the art deco motifs I added in the corner only really serves the jazz age page, as it was a style which was created in the jazz age.

The Not so Silent Films of the 1900’s : Survey 7


Survey 7: Cubism and corporate identity (1905 – 1915)


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Silent film, and music almost seem like a contradiction but upon further inspection, nothing could be further from the truth. In the absence of spoken word and other forms of communication, the role which music plays is only heightened. Film in music creates creates a link between the events we see projected and establishes the context of the film.

However, while music plays a crucial role in good storytelling, originally the addition of music in silent films was one which was mostly practical. Specifically to drown out rowdy audiences and the constant noise of the projector. However as technology improved and the noise from the projector was reduced, this problem was eliminated. Yet music stayed, and is decidedly here to stay. Music has  burrowed its way into our understanding of film to the point where the two cannot be divided without changing their fundamental definitions.

Way back when…
Initially, music for silent films was provided by a live performance by musicians through sheet, the first example having occurred on December 28th by 1895 in Paris. However, this trend was one which remained quarantined in Europe for some time. In America, the the norm was for music to be played over a phonogram, while in Japan screenings silent films had live narration.

As for the process in which music was provided for silent films, it was essentially a huge mess which followed widely held system. However some common methods were piano composition, published musical extracts, pre-arranged sores and original scores.

1910’s Mashup?

Sheet music for movie sword fights and duels.
An example of a sheet of “mood music”

The 1910’s saw the birth of music being created with the specific intent of being used for films. Specifically, these pre-arranged scores were referred to as “genre music” or “mood music”. The music was meant for general music, and was composed with the idea of being accompanied by common themes or actions in films. The composed pieces would be vandelli music libraries for films to pick and choose a variety of different compositions to  use in their films, creating almost a mashup.

Original Score
While original scores are the standard in film and theatre, in the beginning of film and cinema they were the outliers. Even in the 1910s and 20’s original scores were extremely rare, and were reserved for movies with very high budgets.


Just Wingin’ It

Rosa Rio or “Fox Rosario”, an American Concerto Pianist who accompanied many silent films. Interestingly enough, many of the musicians were women they were traditionally instructed on how to play the piano from a young age, and she was one of the many.


The final option which some musician opted to use (or had no other option) was to simply improvise the score of the film on the piano. The first screening of the movie would be the least successful but as the musician accompanied multiple screenings and learned the events the score would form. The musician would develop motifs and themes for the character which would result in the creation of a unique score, which would be unique to its performance.


And….Now! Cue Sheets

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A cue sheet for the 1926 silent film”The Ace of Action”

When improvising music, some movies handed out “cue sheets” , which essentially outlined the events of a film. Their intended purpose was to guide the musician through the film so that they could tailor their music to the events playing on screen. Initially, film companies would supplied cue sheets were the outfiler, ut by the 1913s Edwin Film Company had issued cue sheets for all of their feature films, and other film companies followed suit

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Picture Sources (in order as they appear)


Lecture Summary

This week we covered the timeperoid of immense change in design and art. It has often cited as the beginnings of corporate identities, through the work of a series of different artists who flipped advertising upside down. Peter Behrens, a german aritechect being one of the most influential figures in this shift, as he was the first to create a “comprehensive visual identity” for the German electrical company, AEG, for which he worked.

Other significant art movements which occur in conjunction to the corporate poster design one was   the beginnings of Fauvism and Cubism through the works of Picasso. Additionally, architecture also cultivated a totally different look at this time.  We can see the architecture Frank Lloyd Wright as a messenger, bringing Japanese ideas of harmony in design to North America. Similarly, during this time there was a push implemented by Wright to focus more on the interior, rather than create a flashy facade.

Survey 6- Dreams & Designers (1895-1905)

Lecture Summary

This week during the lecture we covered the time between 1895 and 1905, a time period which is characterized by the immense progress in the arts and design . For example, during this time we see art nouveau rise from the ashes which the arts and crafts movement left behind. Art nouveau took many aesthetique inspiration from the arts and crafts movement which is seen through their shared usage of organic lines and geometric shapes. However they differed in their philosophy, the arts and crafts movement was a push against industrialization and mass production whereas art nouveau embraced it. Important figures in this movement include
Antoni Horta and most famously, Alphonse Mucha.  Other notable movements which we see are the secessionist movement which was inspired by the work of the Gaglslow Four (a group of groundbreaking artists from the Gagslow School). This movement included artists such as Gustav Klimpt.

Research – Edwardian Fashion

As always, fashion is much more than the garments which we use to clothe ourselves. It is the a time capsule to its era, an expression of values, influences, and ideals. A time and place  fashion is a product of its time, and is affected by the the context in which it was placed.

Edwardian fashion for example, is an example example of this phenom. The major driving force at the time was the industrial revolution, which was in full swing, sending Europe headfirst into a totally foreign world.The revolution came with several effects, including the creation of the middle class, and the facilitation of garment making.Additionally, the creation of the sewing machine greatly facilitated the process of making garment and consequently resulted in a boom of clothing which was created from factories.

As a result, the newly created middle class could enjoy a new range of benefits which normally would have been reserved for the wealthy. Literacy rates, leisure time and money all increased due the effects of the industrial revolution which contributed to a culture which was capable of interesting themselves with other things.With the world which once was turned on its head, the role of its citizens was placed in a , especially women. The world began to stray from its strict Victorian ways, seeking out luxury, opulence and the lifestyle of the elite, such as the British Monarch Charles

The Gibson Girl – An Icon

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Charles Dana Gibson’s, 1898, “Gibson Girl”

To create a clearer picture of the aesthetic ideals of  the time, we can take Charles Dana Gibson illustrations of the unnamed women as the icons/role models of this movement in fashion. “The Gibson Girl”, as she was commonly referred to, was portrayed as bold, and fun loving,  all while retaining a cool sophistication. She was the icon of the century and embodied all the elements which the fashion savvy copied.

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Charles Dana Gibson’s illustration of the Gibson girl was the icon of the Edwardian period and exemplifies its traits, as well as the the figure which was sought after. These elements include her long, slender neck, small waist with an ample bust and hips and her iconic hair-do.

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Another one of Gibson’s illustrations of the so called “Gibson Girl”, and here we see her embodying the Edwardian Ideal, with the tailored jacket on the left, the iconic hairdo in the middle, and the high collared blouse on the right.


An Edwardian dress featuring the “monobosom”

One notable changes in this style was the silhouette, mostly due the change in corsets. Victorian fashion favoured the hourglass figure, whereas the Edwardian era leaned towards a soft s curve. In order to achieve this, “S-bend Corsets” (also known as “straight-back corsets, and “health corsets”) were popularised. Unlike the Victorian corsets, s bend corsets pushed the chest forward and the hips backwards and “promoted a proud posture”. The corset did not divide up the bust and created a “monobosom” (think pigeon) which was considered fashionable.

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An uncanny resemblance…

The shape of skirt also changed during the Edwardian era of fashion,as styles such as the bustles of the Victorian Era reached their death. 2 pieced garments were the most common, with skirts that cinched in the waist and flared as they reached the group. The new style of skirts created a lily or a trumpet silhouette. In 1901 skirts embellished with ruffled lace or fabric were also popular. The silhouette of the skirts began to change in 1904, the shape was made fuller and clung less to the hips, and as 1905 approached skirts began to gently fold inwards. Along with this trend, the waist line of these dresses began to rise until 1907.  However, throughout the entire period skirts did retain their length of their Victorian counterparts (often (often brushing the floor) but as time passed trains became more and more common (even for everyday attire!) . Tailored jackets were commonly paired with skirts, and they first began to appear in the 1880’s and increased in popularity until their peak in early 1900’s.




Photo Credit
(in order from beginning to first)




Survey 4 – Steam and the Speed of Light & the Brotherhood that Reformed 1850’s Art

Lecture Summary

Today’s lecture, “Steam and the Speed of Light” focused on the years 1750-1850 encompassed a massive time period of political and industrial revolutions, and inmmense scientific progress. Our group was focusing in art and the effects of the industrial revolution were imminent. As technology allowed for production to increase, communserum increased as it became more and more affordable. This created an explosion in the arts, especially in fonts as the mass production of posters became more and more common. Examples of this include the invention of fat-face typefaces (by Robert Thorne), Slab serif or “egyptian” typeface (by Vincent Vincent Figgins) and Sans Serif or “gothic” (by Adrian Frutige). Similarity, the first Christmas cards were mass produced in this time. However, our group was more interested in the fine arts of the time. For example, the Romantic period, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and Ukiyo-e. In particularly we are interested in dissecting the differences and similarities between these movements of art. Specifically, the techniques they used, their philosophies, and influences.

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a movement of art which lasted between the years 1850 and 1854. Refers to a group of artists who set out to reform the art world, for what they thought was the better. It began as a secret society which later grew more recognition. Originally began with only three members, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Later on, the brotherhood grew to include 4 other artists. The selection process they used is largely a mystery, especially considering the mismatched group they ended up with. This group included a painter who did not appear to support any of their philosophies (James Collision, he is largely believed to have been accepted due to his engagement to Rossetti’s sister, Christina), a sculptor (Thomas Woolner) and two “non-practicing artists” (Frederic George Stephens and William Michael Rossetti, although it should be noted that the two went on to become art critics).

The group can be seen as the antithesis of the teachings of the Royal Academy and Victorian Genre Paintings. At the time, The Royal Academy strongly favoured styles of the Old Masters, such as their characteristic use of strong lighting and dark shadows (known as “chiaroscuro”). The goal of genre painting was to render the daily lives of individuals (who were commonly not of social importance).The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood rejected these ideas, instead they cultivated a more serious earnest philosophy to artwork. It was a philosophy which was largely inspired by the works of John Ruskin, an art critic (who would later help popularize their work) which is best summed up by the quote “To go to the nature in all singleness of heart…rejecting nothing, selecting nothing and scorning nothing”. The Pre-Raphaelites stood in revolt against the “triviality” of genre paintings, and believed that art should be be limited to serious subjects. The works of art prior to the renaissance, particularly Raphael (Thus the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood), especially 15th Century Flemish artists, acted as a basis of inspiration for their own works. This influence is clear, as their style was defined by simple linework and large areas of canvas rendered with brilliant colour, all render with immense detail and precision. 

Ophelia by John Everett Millais is an excellent example of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood’s usage of literature as a source of inspiration, as well as the immense detail which the style required. (photo taken from

Themes of death and love were among their favourite to depict, and they heavily drew off from literature. In the group’s beginning, religious scenes such as biblical stories were common themes. However, Arthurian legends, Shakespeare’s plays, and medieval romances were also sources of inspiration.


However, after some trials and tribulations (ruthless criticism from their first exhibit in 1850 and then praise from the art critic John Ruskin)the movement began to dissolve, with Woolner immigration to Australia (1852), and Hunt’s trip to the Holy Land in order to better paint religious scenes. The movement was formally ended when Millais to the appointed to Royal Academy in 1853.

William Holman Hunt - A Converted British Family.jpg
A Converted British Family Sheltering a Christian Priest by William Holman Hunt (photo taken from
John Everett Millais - Christ in the House of His Parents (`The Carpenter's Shop') - Google Art Project.jpg
John Everett’s Millais’s Christ in the House of his Parents (photo taken from

(These two paintings were shown to the Royal Academy among others  in 1849, and were ruthlessly criticised by Charles Dickens, who claimed they more clearly  resembled a medieval manuscript than art. In response, Collinson resigned and Rossetti decided to no longer publicity exhibit his work.)

The movement lasted only five years, yet its impact can not be understated. Its seven members all became successful in an industry which first ruthless criticized their work. Additionally, its existence laid the foundation for other art movements. For example, it was one of the first groups to consider painting outside in nature to fully capture the details that was necessary for the realism they wanted to achieve. This was a milestone in art, and paved the road for other art movements to build upon. Another milestone technique they perfected was the

And in the end, Millais was appointed to the Royal Academy, which means that the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood did indeed achieve its goal ; to reform art and its philosophy.  

Survey 5 – Block Books and Baroque (1450-1750)

Lecture Summary Block Books and Baroque (1450-1750)

In this week’s lecture we focused on the agest between 1450 and 1750, a span of three hundred years included a variety of time periods of immense progress in various areas. The renaissance brought on the renewal of the Greek and Roman classics which drove investigations in architecture and human anatomy. The Greek and Roman classics acted as anew foundation for the growth and renewal of many subjects, not just limited to the ones I listed, typography, for example was greatly influenced by the renaissance. Humanism which began to develop at the same time, also pushed people to make scientific discoveries as they looked for their own answers instead of looking to the Church. Even past the renaissance science began developing at breakneck speed with critical discoveries from Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton to name a few. For example, The scientific Revolution(beginning with Nicolaus Copernicus) and the Age of Enlightenment created a demand a place for scientific books to be published. In turn, it also created the genre of scientific illustration. Essentially, science this period of time was crucial to many scientific discoveries which we take for granted.

My group (which focused on science and technology) found this span of time particularly easy to consider. Science is an incredibly broad subject, and we chose to narrow our research down to biology. Advancements in biology began in the renaissance with the work of Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo and continued throughout this time period.

Research – Discovery of microorganism


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Google’s “google doodle” celebrating Leeywenhoek’s 384th birthday (photo taken from

While the science of microbiology is a relatively new science, having had about only one hundred fifty years of applicable history, its origins are much older. The foundations of microbiology, bacteriology and protozoology were built in the 1600’s by a man found by a man who had no intent of finding them.

The credit of discovering the first microorganisms goes largely to a Dutch man by the name of Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. He was the first to declare the existence of life which was not visible to the naked eye. Many modern day microbiologist argue that his work with microorganisms build the foundations of the science.  Leeuwenhoek was no scientist, by profession he was draper,and it is evident that fact is evident in all of his work. He had a notable interest in lens making, however most of this came from necessity. Originally his lenses were made with the sole purpose of of examining small pieces of thread. And yet, in 1644 when he looked into his microscope (which had magnification between x30 and x226) he observed protozoa which he had isolated from various different sources (including rainwater, well and pond water, intestines, and the human mouth). He dubbed the microscopic organisms “animalcules’, the word protozoa would not be used until much later.


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Leeuwenhoek’s self made microscope (photo taken from


As amazing as his discovery was, his research was anything but scientific , especially in organization (or better said a lack of organization).However, he demonstrated unparalleled skills of observation, as he is credited with given the first correct report of microorganisms ( although this information would have no practical application until later).


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Some of Leeuwenhoek’s illustrations of microorganisms

In 1676 Leeuwenhoek submitted his discovery to the Royal Society in London where they were later published in the group’s book “Philosophical transactions”. In later years he ___ a letter to the Royal society which detailed the various microbiological investigations he carried out. These letters where published in 1684 and contained the first illustrations of bacteria. He specifically illustrated microorganisms such as bacilli streptococci, volvox, vorticella and euglena.. Amazing enough, these illustrations are still viable and extraordinarily accurate.  Other discoveries he made at roughly the same time include his observations of free-living protozoa (which include various species of paramecium), the first parasitic protozoa and the discovery of Giardia Lamblia.

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Robert Hooke’s “Micrographia” published in 1655 (photo taken from Wikipedia)

While Leeuwenhoek was the first to illustrate bacteria, Robert Hooke was the first to illustrate filamentous microscopic fungi. Robert Hooke was a man of many talents, as he was an astronomer, map maker, architect, and a biologist. He was the first person to use the microscope in an academic study, which was crucial to the Leeuwenhoek’s discovery. In 1655 (21 years before Leeuwenhoek’s publication) he published the first book about microbiology entitled “Micrographia” which introduced the topic of microbiology to the world (however it did not document any microorganisms).



Works Cited

  • “Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek.” Britannica, Britiannica, 22 Aug. 2018, Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
  • “A Brief History of Microbiology.” Cliffnotes, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
  • “Introduction to Microbiology.” Lumen, Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.
  • Wainwright, Milton, and Joshua Lederberg. “History of Microbiolog.” The Joshua Lederberg Papers, pp. 1-19. US Nation Library of Medicine, Accessed 4 Oct. 2018.

Survey 4 & Research

Lecture Summary

his week’s summaries we looked at the time period between o BCE and 1450 AC and focused in on (books, printing, writing and how they were affected by various factors. These factors include the paper they used and they used and why they chose it and to their purpose, mostly commissions of religious texts. Examples of these texts include the 1st printed text The Diamond Sutra, The Codex of Gigas, and The Book of Kells. The overwhelming majority of these works are religious in nature, and we saw the influence that religion had on the stylistic choices of these texts.For example, we looked at illuminated Manuscripts of the Quran which were devoid of any representations of humans. Christian and other religious illuminated texts often featured humans as the main subjects of illustrations which made an interesting contrast. This was because in Islam the representation of the human form is not allowed in any shape or form as it is considered a form of idolatry. From this, my group which focused on architecture began to began to think about how religion affected architectural styles, which prompted many questions.


Flamboyant style is an ornate form of Gothic architecture which evolved from the Rayonnant style, and flourished in French between 1350 and 15,00. The west facade of the Cathedral of Rouen built in 1370 is considered the birth of the style, the high point of Flamboyant architecture is the church of Saint Maclou at Rouen (as shown below). 

Image result for cathedral church of Saint Maclou at Rouen.
The Rayonnant style of architecture was bold, eye catching famously flamboyant. However, as time went on and the demand for flamboyance only increased, the Rayonnant style wasn’t considered quite enough; and thus the Flamboyant style was born. Cathedrals such as Notre-Dame d’Épine and Palais de Justice at Rouen, France exemplify the new flamboyant style, which outdid the Rayonnant style in every way possible.

France is the homeplace of the style however it was adopted by Spain and Portugal in the 15th century. La Capilla del Condestable in Burgos, and the Cathedral of Segovia in Spain serve as prime examples of the Spanish form of the Flamboyant style.

 In essence, it was a purely decorative style which added embellishments onto the foundation of Gothic architecture(such as flying buttresses and valued ceilings) but no structural Advances.   

The most common descriptors attributed to the style are “flowery” and “lacy” which are both apt adjectives for it. Every surface was taken advantage of and used for decorative purposes. Facades in particular were the jewel of the style. They were painstakingly carved, and created  

These elements compounded created an almost delicate appearance which was only accentuated by some of the structural choices integral to the style. The foundations of the buildings in flamboyant style are noted to be proportionally very thin, allowing for  little space in between windows, roof lines and flying buttresses.

However perhaps the most recognizable aspect of the Flamboyant style are the stone window traceries ( the stone work which provided reinforcement between glass segments). Unlike many other variants of Gothic architecture, Flamboyant traceries are recognized by their distinct “s” shape compared to the more common round traceries of other Gothic styles. The traceries are often compared to flames or tongues.

image of flame traceryRelated image


Niches which featured figures were also common in Flamboyant architecture although it was common spread thoroughly all Gothic architecture.


  • “Flamboyant Style.” Britannica, Accessed 27 Sept. 2018.

  • “flamboyant style.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 26 Sep. 2018 <>.

  • Muscato, Christopher. “Rayonnant VS Flamboyant.” Study, Accessed 27 Sept. 2018.

  • Przybylek, Stephanie. “Flamboyant Gothic Architecture.” Study, Accessed 27 Sept. 2018.

    Pictures from (in order)

    2nd picture


Week 3- Lecture Summary & Research

Lecture Summary

This week’ lecture focused on the evolution of art and typeface, and the circumstances affected their creation.However we did stray a little from the initial subject of art and typeface, delving into more historical aspects of these subjects, such as the circumstances which allowed for them to arise. This sort of discussion turned out to be very helpful for my group and myself who are in the geo-political group. In many cases, language was advanced not only be trade, but by direct commands from the government. Examples of this include the Chinese folktale which states that the yellow Emperor ordered Kanji, to create a writing system and the Korean king Sejong ordered the creation of the Hangul alphabet.  From this we began to think about how leaders can be on of the driving force in the development of concepts such as writing. Both examples mentioned are still the current writing systems of their respective countries. Our plan for our spread was to look at the Ancient Egyptian concept of kingship, as well as the influential rulers and their effect of Egypt as a whole, and this lecture helped us brainstorm more

Research (300-500)

Egyptian Concept of Kingship
The pharaoh was the political and religious ruler of Egypt, and often acted as a representative of the gods. The word pharaoh is a great variant of the Egyptian “pero” or “per-a-a”, which can be translated as “Great House. While Egypt was divided into sections called Nomes and ruled by Nomarchs, in the end, the Pharaoh has power over all. Similar to every other aspect of egyptian theology, the concept of duality is integral to the Egyptian concept of kinship. The pharaoh was both a political symbol and a theological concept. For example, in texts Pharaohs are often referred to by the gods as “my living image on earth” and are depicted with many similarities to Re, Aton, Amon and especially Horus. The pharaoh is even referred to as Aton, Horus, and Re. However, it is important to note that the pharaoh himself is not a god. Even though divinity is intertwined with the role of the Pharaoh, the pharaoh is not divine himself. The king can still physically die, but his soul is immortal. Simply put, the Pharaoh can be thought of a version of Horus, not the Horus. The pharaoh’s divine role was often represented in art. In ancient Egypt, the relative sizes of people and deities was indicative of their status, and pharaohs were always depicted as least as large as other humans. Additionally, humans were often shown bowing in reverence to pharaohs.

A pharaoh’s goal was not only to to be religious and political leader of egypt but also to uphold Ma’at. Ma’at refers the Egyptian ideas of justice, balance and harmony, as well as its divine personification the goddess Ma’at.The pharaoh was meant to follow the wishes of Ma’at and to follow through with them.

The first reference to an Egyptian pharaoh is the legend of Menes, who was said to be the uniter of Lower and Upper Egypt. This feat was accomplished through conquest, and thus the first dynasty of Egypt was founded and of the city Memphis. Unfortunately, archaeologist’s search for evidence of his evidence has largely turned out to be fruitless. Many Egyptologist, such as Flinders Petrie believe that Menes was a reference to a title instead of a name (meaning “he who endures”). However much evidence has been found to corroborate that Narmer (c.3150 BCE) was most likely the first pharaoh.


Perhaps the most promising evidence is the Narmer Palette,  which depicts Narmer symbolically unifying Egypt. Narmer is always depicted wearing a combination of the two crowns of Egypt. The red crown is representative of lower Egypt, while the white crown of Upper Egypt. Thus, the combined version visually depicts the coalescence of Egypt. Many Egyptian documents after the unification of Egypt portray pharaohs wearing this crown. However, interestingly enough archeologist have been unable to find any physical proof of these crowns.


Narmer Palette

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There is a pretty large disconnect between the mythical figure of Menes and more evidence based story of Narmer.For example, the legend of Menes states that Lower and Upper Egypt were unified through conquest. However, Narmer’s story states that unification of Egypt was bloodless. Unlike Menes, Narmer supposedly accomplished this feat by marrying a princes, consolidating power and through forging strong connections with neighbouring factions.


Notable Pharaohs

Pepi II or otherwise known by his Pharoah name Neferkare (meaning “Beautiful is the spirit of Ra”), was the 5th Pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty (2325-c.2150 BCE), and is credited for having the longest reign of any pharaoh. Sources say that he ascended to the throne at age six and records Credit him with a reign of 94 years. However it should be noted that while Pepi II enjoyed the longest reign of them all, it was not a prosperous time. On the contrary it was a characterized by the internal and external strige which Egypt faced.  Pepi II’s reign was characterized by the decline of the Old Kingdom, in large part due to changing dynamics of powers. Internally, Nomarches (nobles who ruled over the the divided sections of Egypt called Nomes” were enjoying an increase of power from the previous ruler, Pepi I. Consequently, small civil wars broke out as a result from their struggles for power. Additionally, Egypt suffered low flooding from the Nile, which had disastrous consequences. Pepi’s solution of taxing the poor in order to make up for the costs had the opposite intended effect, only hurting his already diminishing reign. In the end, Pepi’s death marked the end of of the 6th dynasty of Egypt and the splendor of the Old Kingdom.


Ramses II, more commonly known as Ramses the Great or by his pharaoh name  Userma’atre’setepenre (“keeper of Harmony, Strong in Right, Elect of Ra”) is remembered as one of the most successful pharaohs. He was the 3rd pharaoh of the 19th dynasty (1292-1186 bCE). His most notable accomplish was the victory at Kadesh against Hittite invasion , where he established a reputation as a warrior. He boasted a long and prosperous reign in which he gained trading partners, secured borders, augmented the country’s wealth, and built a truly astonishing about of monuments and temples and statues of himself (more than any other pharaoh). He was considered so successful and loved that his legacy was a string of Pharaohs named in his honour.



Mark, Joshua J. “Ramesses II.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009. Web. 21 Sep 2018.

Mark, Joshua J. “Pharaoh.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009. Web. 21 Sep 2018.

Mark, Joshua J. “Menes.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Jan 2016. Web. 21 Sep 2018.

“Pepi II King of Egypt.” Britannica,
Accessed 21 Sept. 2018.


Narmer Palette-
All pictures of the crowns -