John Constable (Realism, Pre-Impressionism, & Pre-Raphaelites)
John Constable was an English oil and water landscape painter best known for his Pre-Impressionist style. In his early career, his abstract style was not particularly praised in the art community. Around the age of 52, he became a more renowned when he was elected to the famous London art institute, the Royal Academy. And although he was a British painter, France seemed to appreciate his works more than his native country.
I personal admire the naturalistic style Constable captured in his paintings. The rural scene and a somewhat bleak atmosphere he created in paintings like The Hay Wain in 1821 was very captivating.
Often times, landscapes were always considered as a backdrop element. Constable, however, was able to bring these day-to-day scenes to life with thick strokes and smears of painting (ex. The White Horse c. 1818-19, Seascape Study with Rain Cloud c.1824). Perhaps his vision was also influenced by his upbringing environment and hometown village. It is amazing to see how Constable went against the stream of Realism and established the basis of abstract style (Pre-Impressionism) that later inspired many Impressionist artists like Jean Francois Millet and Philip Wilson Steer as well as the Barbizon School in France.